September 2017

Art of Deception: Pencil Drawings Look Like Colorful 3D Splashes of Paint

[ By WebUrbanist in Art & Drawing & Digital. ]

Seeming to rise up off the canvass, a viewer would be impressed to discover these swaths of paint to be two-dimensional in nature, but then further shocked to realize the material isn’t paint at all but pencil.

Australian artist Cj Hendry has an eye for hyper-realism, but in this series: instead of using it to draft convincing landscapes or portraits has turned to emulating oil paint.

Masire: the president who left Botswana and the world an enduring legacy

Former president of Boswana Ketumile Masire Reuters

In the Western press, the legacies of African leaders tend to hinge on their respect for term limits, property rights, and fiscal restraint. Since his death in June 2017, the late Quett Ketumile Masire, Botswana’s former Minister of Finance and Development Planning (1966-1980) and President (1980-1998), has been remembered largely in these terms.

A Washington Post obituary quoted former US President Bill Clinton, who in 1998 called Masire “an inspiration to all who cherish freedom.”

Even before Masire’s death, the literature on Botswana’s economic history was filled with praise for his leadership. A 1999 World Bank report hailed his government for its “fiscal discipline.” A Harvard Business School case study described Botswana under Masire as a stalwart of “prudent social and macroeconomic policies.”

Africa Architecture Awards : Africa’s Leading Architects Revealed!

Rod Choromanski - Winner

The Africa Architecture Awards is the first-ever Pan-African awards programme of its kind

JOHANNESBURG, South Africa, September 29, 2017/ -- At a gala awards ceremony held on the rooftop of the Zeitz MOCAA in Cape Town, the inaugural Grand Prix and Category Winners of the Africa Architecture Awards ( were announced on the evening of Thursday, 28 September 2017. Over 130 VIP guests were in attendance at this glittering event, including the Consul-General of France in Cape Town, Mr Laurent Amar, the Chairman of the French South African Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Philip Geromont, and Claude van Wyk of the Kingdom of The Netherlands Consulate General in Cape Town. The shortlisted finalists were flown into South Africa from across the continent and the world, and hosted by awards founder and sponsor Saint-Gobain (

The much-anticipated gala was the culmination of an ambitious two-year awards programme that was initiated and supported by construction industry innovator Saint-Gobain with the ultimate aim of stimulating conversations about African architecture as it cements its place in a global continuum. The Africa Architecture Awards is the first-ever Pan-African awards programme of its kind. A steering panel headed by Professor Lesley Lokko guided the awards with strategic input from Ambassador Phill Mashabane, advisor Zahira Asmal, and patron Sir David Adjaye, one of the globe’s most influential voices in architecture.

Cabinet approves land, tech bills for public comment

Cabinet has approved the Land Survey Amendment Bill and the Science and Technology Laws Amendment Bill for public comment.

“Cabinet approved the publication of the Land Survey Amendment Bill for public comment. The Bill amends the Land Survey Act, 1997 (Act 8 of 1997),” said Cabinet in a statement following its fortnightly meeting this week.

It said the amendments enhance lines of accountability and governance and provide for the appointment of certain members of the Survey Regulations Board to enhance the regulation of the survey of land in South Africa.

The Bill seeks to regulate the survey of land in South Africa by empowering the Chief Surveyor-General to exercise national oversight and management over the geodetic, topographic and cadastral surveys, geospatial and land information services.

Science and Technology Laws Amendment Bill

Cabinet also approved the publication of the Science and Technology Laws Amendment Bill of 2017 for public comment.

“The Bill proposes harmonising and standardising the provisions which regulate the operations and governance of the public entities reporting to the Minister of Science and Technology.

“This will ensure consistency in all requirements to be met and processes to be followed by the entities as they relate to governance,” said Cabinet.


Eskom suspends Chief Financial Officer Anoj Singh

Eskom on Friday announced the suspension of its Chief Financial Officer Anoj Singh.

“Eskom has suspended its Chief Financial Officer, Mr Anoj Singh pending a disciplinary hearing,” said the power utility.

In July, the power utility’s board announced that it had placed Singh on special leave pending an investigation.

Registered chartered accountant Calib Cassim, who has worked at Eskom for 15 years, has been appointed as the utility’s interim Chief Financial Officer (CFO).

Matshela Koko hearing

Meanwhile, Eskom said the disciplinary hearing of its former Acting Group Chief Executive Matshela Koko is scheduled to start in two weeks.

“Mr Matshela Koko’s disciplinary hearing has been scheduled to commence within the next two weeks. Both Singh and Koko will be afforded a fair disciplinary process,” said Eskom.

In August, the utility announced that it had received a report by both Cliffe Dekker Hofmeyr and Nkonki Incorporated.

“As far as the disciplinary matter against Mr Koko is concerned, the report by both Cliffe Dekker Hofmeyr and Nkonki Incorporated went through an entire process of edification, as critical documents, presentations and submissions by various parties internally and externally were required in strict accordance with a fair process,” said Eskom at the time.

In July, the power utility announced that it had received a report regarding allegations of impropriety on Koko.


Here are the winners of the 2017 Africa Architecture Awards

Here are the winners of the 2017 Africa Architecture AwardsThe inaugural Africa Architecture Awards was held on Thursday, 28 September, at the newly launched Zeitz MOCAA in Cape Town. Over 300 projects from 32 African countries were entered into the awards.
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Police officers arrested for foiled robbery

Eight suspects, including three police officers, were arrested on Thursday following the foiled robbery of a cellphone store at the Fourways Mall, north of Johannesburg.

Police said on Thursday that security officers at the mall spotted and apprehended one suspect before alerting the police.

With the help of the Gauteng Provincial Trio Task Team, they then followed the other suspects who were driving in three vehicles, a BMW, Hyundai and a Polo.

Four suspects were arrested after the police members stopped and searched the vehicles on the N1, also recovering unlicensed firearms, Gauteng police said.

Three further suspects, South African Police Service officers, have since been arrested on suspicion of having been party to the foiled robbery.

The police officers were driving in a marked state car and have been apprehended for escorting five robbery suspects.

Police say they are investigating the circumstances around the three’s proximity to the incident.

“While the arrest of our own is a slap in the face of the Police Service, it is at the same time commendable that they were arrested by courageous officers who are committed to fighting crime, even if that means putting behind bars our own members,” said the Gauteng Provincial Commissioner Lieutenant-General Deliwe de Lange in welcoming the arrest.

Further investigations are underway to establish whether or not the suspects could be linked to other cellphone store robberies, or any other crimes.

The investigation will also look into whether more officers or suspects could be involved.

All eight suspects will be appearing in Court in due course.


Parastatals Eskom & Transnet suspended from Business Leadership South Africa (BLSA)

Transnet and Eskom have noted their suspension from Business Leadership South Africa (BLSA).

“Eskom has noted BLSA’s decision to suspend the company’s membership with immediate effect,” said the power utility.

It further added that Interim Group Chief Executive Johnny Dladla has written a letter to the BLSA.

BLSA in a statement on Thursday announced the suspension of membership of the two state owned companies with immediate effect. The companies fall within the ambit of the Department of Public Enterprises.

This follows BLSA’s engagement with the two state-owned enterprises in connection with extensive allegations of corrupt behaviour over a long period.

In its response the rail, port and pipeline company said that BLSA approached it earlier this year, requesting it to consider renewing its membership for 2017.

“Transnet has noted Business Leadership South Africa’s (BLSA’s) statement claiming that it had suspended Transnet’s membership. This is inaccurate and misleading.

“BLSA approached Transnet early this year, requesting it to consider renewing its membership for 2017. Transnet elected not to renew the membership due to cost-cutting measures. This was communicated to BLSA on 9 August 2017,” said Transnet.

Transnet subsequently received a meeting request from BLSA CEO Bonang Mohale to discuss the cancellation.

“The meeting has not taken place due to diary clashes. While Transnet appreciates the role played by BLSA in South Africa, it is unfortunate that Mr Mohale opted to mislead the public in such a spectacular manner.”

The company further added that it is aware of reports casting doubt on the integrity of its procurement processes.

“The company views these in a serious light and is currently conducting its own investigation on all allegations made.”

BLSA is an independent association whose members include the leaders of some of South Africa’s biggest and most well-known organisations.

World Habitat Day - UCLG calls for the right to adequate, safe and affordable housing

Local and regional governments celebrate World Habitat Day and the goal of affordable and decent homes for all

World Habitat Day is an opportunity to reflect on the state of our towns and cities, and the right to adequate shelter. The theme of World Habitat Day 2017 is Housing Policies: Affordable Homes, a long-standing priority for UCLG and our members.

UCLG committed to “Make the Shift” to housing as a human right

UCLG sees the right to housing as an essential element of the Right to the City. Over the past year, UCLG and our Committee on Social Inclusion, Participatory Democracy and Human Rights have been supporting the “Make the Shift” campaign

Paragon Architects reaches Italy

A billboard of 30 Jellicoe has been used in Italy. 

Paragon wins at the SAIA/ GIfA Awards of 2017

Alice Lane 3 won an Award of Merit for Paragon Architects, while Paragon Architects and Paragon Interface won an Award of Excellence for Sasol Place. 

The power and politics of knowledge: what African universities need to do

African universities can work towards decolonisation while championing the UN's Agenda 2030. Shutterstock

The idea that knowledge is infused with power and politics may sound abstract, so let me offer an example from my own life to illustrate. I was invited to a dinner proceeding a conference in an African capital city. I had expected to meet all the other speakers. But it turned out to be only for the chosen few. I could not help wondering how we’d been selected. White faces outnumbered black ones, men outnumbered women – at a conference to discuss African universities’ future role.

It was an interesting example of the power and politics of knowledge. These are factors I believe should be addressed to ensure African universities and higher education can play a more powerful role in transforming our world and empowering women.

The UN says its 2030 Agenda, which is made up of 17 sustainable development goals, is aimed at “transforming our world”. Quality education and lifelong learning, along with gender equality and empowerment of women, feature in many of the goals.

Universities and higher education, however, receive little attention in this document. So it may seem odd to focus on higher education in relation to Agenda 2030 and women. But I’ve chosen this perspective because higher education institutions in general and universities in particular are important for achieving Agenda 2030’s goals.

How land reform and rural development can help reduce poverty in South Africa

Rural poverty affects a growing number of people in South Africa. REUTERS/Mike Hutchings

South Africa will need to review its land reform policy, with an eye to boosting productive land use among the rural poor, if it is to push back rising poverty levels.

The country’s poverty levels have increased sharply over the past five years with an additional 3 million people now classified as living in absolute poverty. This means about 34 million people from a population of 55 million lack basic necessities like housing, transport, food, heating and proper clothing.

Much of the commentary on these sad statistics has emphasised the poor performance of urban job creation efforts and the country’s education system. Little has been said about the role of rural development or land reform.

This is a major omission given that about 35% of South Africa’s population live in rural areas. They are among the worst affected by the rising poverty levels.

Large tracts of land lie fallow in the country’s rural areas, particularly in former homelands (surrogate states created by the apartheid government). They were fully integrated into South Africa in 1994 bringing with them large amounts of land under traditional authorities.

Kenya’s history of political violence: colonialism, vigilantes and militias

A supporter of the opposition leader Raila Odinga faces off against riot police officers during a protest in Nairobi. Dai Kurokawa/EPA

The Supreme Court decision to nullify Kenya’s presidential election and hold a new poll has reignited fears that the country could descend into violence.

Kenya certainly has an extensive track record of political violence. This has generally been ethnically mobilised, stemming from grievances over land and exacerbated by vigilantes and militias deployed by politicians to garner support.

Ethnic land grievances can be traced back to colonial rule. White settlers expropriated vast tracts of land, particularly in the fertile Rift Valley which was traditionally a Kalenjin and Maasai area. The creation of ethnically exclusive reserves and African labour forces saw further tribal displacement.

Discriminatory land policies were abolished after the Mau Mau militia (also known as the Land Freedom Army) uprising. But land was not returned to its traditional owners.

Elegant Energy-Free Air Conditioner Can Drop Temperatures by 26 Degrees

[ By WebUrbanist in Design & Fixtures & Interiors. ]

At a glance, the honeycomb structure of terracotta tubes looks more like large-scale work of handmade sculpture than a highly designed air conditioner. Developed for an electronics factory in New Delhi, this evaporative cooling device requires no power to lower interior temperatures by as much as 26 degrees Fahrenheit.

Designed by Ant Studio for DEKI Electronics in New Delhi, the low-tech strategy taps into a long history of passive cooling systems that employ water rather than power. Water passing through the clay pipes and falling into the basin below looks and sounds soothing, but it also lower air temperatures as it evaporates.

FCM Program Knowledge Toolbox July 2017

Knowledge Toolbox July 2017
Knowledge Toolbox July 2017

Multibillion Projects to Transform Arusha City

By Marc Nkwame

Arusha — Robust multibillion development projects are currently under execution to transform the tourist city of Arusha, President John Magufuli said here, yesterday.

He cited the construction of the 139bn/- Usa River- Arusha road, 42bn/- Arusha Water Project and the Rural Electrification project that will supply power to the region's over 200 villages.

Dr Magufuli was addressing residents of Sangsi suburb on the outskirts of Arusha city. The 'wananchi' had intercepted the presidential motorcade to Kilimanjaro International Airport (KIA) for a flight back to Dar es Salaam, seeking to express their grievances.


Great Expectations for the Jozi Inner City

By Herman Mashaba

Let me sell you a vision. My vision. A clean inner city where people from all works of life are educated, and enjoy living.

Revitalised cities across the world - Manchester (US), Bilbao (Spain), HafenCity (Germany) and Melbourne - offer significant inspiration for reviving our own dysfunctional inner city. If war-ravaged Luanda can become "the revitalised jewel of African glory", then so can Johannesburg.

Why should we bother revitalising our inner city and other nodes that I have identified, why don't we just move on to other suburbs? People's eyes glaze over when you talk about the inner city. They're fatigued. "Hillbrow's been a dump for decades," they say. "Randburg's going to the dogs." "Why don't you just move on?" Because I'm not the walking away type, and I don't see inner city revitalisation as a plan to make the city pretty. My vision of a renewed inner city isn't constrained to flower boxes, a lick of paint and quaint houses for high earners.

The Johannesburg inner city, Randburg CBD, and Roodepoort CBD are the gritty, unglamorous, distressed suburbs where buildings have been abandoned or hijacked, where marginalised communities are plagued with social problems, and live in cramped or unsanitary...


Cape Town’s welcome change in housing policy

Good work by housing activists and city officials

By GroundUp Editors

27 September 2017

Photo of Woodstock Hospital
Woodstock Hospital is one of 13 sites set aside by the City of Cape Town for developing housing for low-income families. Photo: Ashraf Hendricks

Without much fanfare, the City of Cape Town has changed its housing policies for poor people over the last few weeks — and very much for the better. Three decisions make this clear: First, 13 new sites near the city centre will accommodate low-income households. Second, a project to build 4,500 homes in dismal Wolwerivier, 30km away from the city centre and millions of light-years from a happy future, has been shelved. Third, the City is changing its approach to dealing with homeless people.

Mayco Members Brett Herron (for decisions one and two) and JP Smith (for decision three) can take much of the credit for these changes, and should be congratulated.

City of Cape Town shelves Wolwerivier housing project

Other sites should be prioritised, says Brett Herron

By Peter Luhanga

26 September 2017

Photo of street
The City of Cape Town has decided not to proceed with the expansion of Wolwerivier settlement. Archive photo: Ashraf Hendricks

The City of Cape Town has decided not to proceed with the building of 4,500 housing units at Wolwerivier, as announced earlier this year.

Brett Herron, Mayco member for Transport and Urban Development, said this was mainly because of the location of Wolwerivier, 30 kilometres from the city.

Wolwerivier is designed as an Incremental Development Area (IDA), for people waiting for better housing but some residents have been there for years. Many were relocated from informal settlements that were demolished, such as Skandaalkamp, or are formerly homeless. The area has high unemployment.

As part of its Integrated Housing Project, the City in July this year, announced its plans to build 4,500 housing units at Wolwerivier.

But asked by GroundUp about progress with the project, Herron said: “The City of Cape Town has recently decided not to proceed with the formal development of housing at Wolwerivier, mainly due to its location. The City is of the opinion that there may be other and better located sites that should be prioritised first, for the development of housing opportunities,” said Herron.

Kenya's SGR Tunnel, an Engineering First in the Region

By Allan Olingo

Kenya is set to become the second country in Africa, after South Africa, to have the longest railway tunnel, a 7.14km civil engineering feat on the escarpment between Nairobi and Naivasha.

Engineers from China Road and Bridges Corporation (CRBC), the SGR contractor, are already nine months into the construction of the tunnel, which comprises three sets: a 4.5 kilometre stretch with a buried depth of 108 metres; a 1km one with a buried depth of 46 metres, and another 1.64km stretch.

The engineers at the 4.5km tunnel at Em Bulbul in Kajiado County, south of Nairobi, are using the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), which involves full-scale excavation.


Construction of Kero Shopping Mall At Final Stage

Huambo — The construction of the Kero shopping mall, located in the outskirts Huambo city, whose works started in March this year are already in its brick-work stage and installation of the technical networks.

This was announced on Monday to Angop by the assistant director of the work, Francisco Fernandes, who added that the shopping mall is being built in area of 11.000 square metres and will also comprise three cinema rooms and a supporting office.

With entrance in operation of the center, the province foresees a growth in the commercial network as well as the creation of more jobs ,besides providing vital products to local inhabitants.


NSSF Launches Construction of US$400m Lubowa Housing Project

By Julius Businge

Kampala — On Sept. 26, the National Social Security Fund (NSSF) broke the ground to construct 2, 740 housing units in Lubowo - about 16 kilometers away from Kampala city.

The new project is being constructed on the 565 acres of land and it is a build and sell project.

Speaking at the ground breaking ceremony, Richard Byarugaba, the NSSF managing director said that the new project will run for 10 years but in phases. The first phase, which will consist of 370 units, will be completed after three years and thereafter, it (project) will be self-financing. Byarugaba said that the entire project will create 5000 jobs.


International Construction Firm Under Fire in Tanzania (Video)

By Khalifa Said

Dar es Salaam — The Occupational Safety and Health Authority (Osha) is investigating a foreign construction firm for laxity that caused serious injuries to one of its workers at a Terminal 3 building site at Julius Nyerere International Airport.

BAM International, the operating company of Royal BAM Group, one of Europe's largest contracting companies, and which is constructing Terminal 3, is accused of failing to adhere to safety regulations and causing an accident.

On September 7, a truck driver was seriously injured after he suffered an electric shock at the Terminal 3 construction site. Sources say workers have been complained to BAM management in vain about a live, lose electric cables at the site.



Developers Win ConCourt Dispute Over Durban High Rise Seek Legal Costs

The developers of a controversial high-rise apartment building on Durban's Berea - which, after a protracted court battle waged with neighbours has now been given the green light by the Constitutional Court - say they are seeking legal advice on the violation of their rights and will recover costs from those who litigated against them.

The attorney acting for Serengeti Rise Industries, Norton Rose Fulbright Director Marelise van der Westhuizen, said in a statement on Wednesday that her client's integrity had been unfairly called into question and had been subjected to an "unwarranted and baseless attack" on its character.

Serengeti and the eThekwini Municipality were initially taken to the Durban High Court by neighbours of the "boundary-to-boundary" development who claimed the rezoning of the site in Currie Road was unlawful and the subsequent building plan approval had allowed for the construction of a "monstrosity", out of keeping with the area and which blocked views, privacy and sunlight.


Umgeni Water to get interim board soon

Water and Sanitation Minister Nomvula Mokonyane will soon announce an interim board to oversee Umgeni Water in the interests of sound corporate governance and stability at the utility.

Umgeni Water is the second largest water board in the country with an annual turnover of more than R2.4 billion and the five year Capital Expenditure budget of more than R7 billion.

Over the past five years, Umgeni Water has consistently been achieving excellent financial and non-financial performance, to an extent that it has successfully been achieving “Clean Audit Reports” annually, from the Office of the Auditor-General.

Acting Chief Executive Msizi Cele has also maintained good governance and ensured that no service interruptions occur.

However, following concerns raised by investors acting on behalf of bond holders in Umgeni Water, Minister Mokonyane has directed that the department engages with representatives of the concerned parties, including the Johannesburg Stock Exchange.

The Minister announced on Wednesday that she would be appointing an interim board at Umgeni Water, pending the finalization of a process for the appointment of a permanent Board.

"I have presented a proposed interim board to Cabinet today [Wednesday]. It is composed of persons with vast experience in the water sector and consisting of credible persons with the requisite financial, legal and management experience required at Umgeni Water.

"The interim board will be expected to meet as a matter of urgency to immediately attend to the corporate governance and financial management matters at the utility, including the composition of an independent audit committee to oversee the finances at Umgeni Water," Minister Mokonyane said.

South Africa spending more on social security

Government has increased spending on programmes aimed at reducing poverty and improving social security for vulnerable citizens.

The Social Budget Bulletin -- launched by Social Development Minister Bathabile Dlamini at the Wits School of Governance on Wednesday -- shows an increase in non-contributory (where recipients do not make a contribution) expenditure from 4.7% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2001 to 7.2% in 2013.

Minister Dlamini said the expenditure was due to increased entitlements in social assistance, primarily child support grants.

The Social Budget Bulletin, a first for the Department of Social Development, is a broad assessment of the quality of the social security regime in South Africa. It examines outcomes between 2001 and 2013. It offers a consolidated perspective on all social security schemes, whether public or private, contributory or non-contributory and formal or informal.

Due to the technical and resource constraints, the inaugural bulletin focuses primarily on social security rather than the broader social protection expenditure in the country.

The bulletin found that during the period under review, there was significant growth in the population receiving subsidised public health services from 37.9 million to 44.2, and the number of beneficiaries of social assistance increased from around five million to 16.1 million.

However, despite this seeming success, social security benefits for families and maternity protection remained below 1% of GDP, even though the department, through the South Africa Social Security Agency (SASSA), identified at least 11 million children living in poor households in 2013.

On the less positive side, the bulletin found that the country experienced limited economic growth, coupled with deteriorating social outcomes over the period under review.

Crime declining but safety perceptions still an issue - Stats SA

Crime levels in South Africa have been gradually declining, both in terms of the proportion of households and individuals that were victimised, the 2016/ 17 Victims of Crime Survey revealed.

With South Africans experiencing lower levels of crime, it was expected that communities would feel safer. Instead, the survey reveals that declining crime trends were accompanied by deteriorating feelings of safety among households, says the report issued by Statistics South Africa on Thursday.

The nationwide household based survey examines perceptions and experiences of citizens in all nine provinces.

According to the report, an estimated 1 468 278 crime incidents were experienced by 1 153 984 households in 2016/17. The victimised households represent 7.2% of all households in South Africa. Male-headed households had a higher proportion at 7.5% of victimisation compared to female-headed households with 6.6%.

The most common crime experienced in 2016/17 was housebreaking or burglary, which stood at 53%, followed by theft of livestock at 11% and home robbery with 10%.

“It is estimated that 776 933 housebreaking incidents were committed in 2016/17, affecting a total of 647 340 households,” the report said.

E Cape town suffers highest house robberies

Buffalo City in the Eastern Cape tops the proportion of households victimised through housebreaking at 6.9%.

Electronic equipment were the most common items stolen during housebreaking.

“It is therefore not surprising that the majority of households were actively taking measures to protect their homes,” the report said, indicating that about 51% of the households took protection measures for their homes.

The two main reasons given for not reporting to the police were “police could do nothing” and “the police would do nothing”.

A reported 38% of households that reported housebreaking were satisfied with police response.

Over 940 000 working days lost to protests in South Africa

South Africa has lost 946 323 working days due to strikes.

The Department of Labour’s Acting Director General, Vuyo Mafata, on Thursday released the Industrial Action Report for 2016, which shows that the South African labour market lost a total of 946 323 working days as a result of 122 work stoppages.

This, according to the report, represents a 4.7% increase in working days lost in 2016 compared to 903 921 days in 2015.

Launching the report, Mafata said most of the work stoppages were due to wages, bonus and other compensation demands.

“In term of wages lost, the South African labour economy lost approximately R161 million due to work stoppages in 2016 compared to R116 million in 2015,” he said.

Mafata said the strike information analysed is based on the information supplied by employers in the Labour Relations Act (LRA) forms after strike incidents ended in workplaces.

“The strike report remains a useful piece of up-to-date information for various stakeholders including government departments, unions, employers, business, international organisations, research institutes, NGOs and students.

“The report provides a detailed account of companies affected by work stoppages and disaggregates information by province, duration, industries, nature and reasons of strikes,” Mafata said.

Mafata said the report still emphasises the Labour Minister’s concerns around the logic of pursuing strike action to the point where it damages workers’ interests.

“Either way, South Africa needs to find a solution for the seemingly faltering bargaining structure. Government, unions and business have an important role to play in order to maintain a stable labour force and fair labour practices that will attract investors and inspire economic growth in the long run,” Mafata said.

2016 Annual Industrial Action Report highlights